- Nov 25, 2013
- Reaction score
What kinds of secret herbs?Yes.
I take it you doc or scientist? Thanks you for explanation, I actually understood it!If anyone would like an overview of the science involved:
In a normal human cell, your DNA is inside the nucleus and it has to stay there, but the structures that assemble proteins and everything in and around the cell are outside the nucleus. Since the DNA doesn't travel out to these structures, mRNA does instead. It copies a piece of DNA in the nucleus, travels outside the nucleus, and gives the instructions to structures that make proteins from it. That's why it's called messenger RNA.
The coronavirus takes advantage of this setup by carrying around pieces of mRNA and injecting them into human cells. The structures of the cell just know that it's mRNA, and that proteins are made from mRNA. They can't tell that these pieces of mRNA didn't come from the cell's own DNA. So they follow the instructions, which are actually instructions to make more viruses and that's how viral infection occurs.
The mRNA vaccine uses this trick against the virus. Instead of injecting all of the pieces of mRNA that a virus would into the cell, though, they just inject one piece. That piece isn't enough to make a whole virus, just a portion of it that floats aimlessly about and can't do any damage. If we can trick our own cells into making enough of these viral pieces, then soon we'll have harmless viral pieces floating around and coming into contact with immune cells. The immune cells recognize it as something different, and make antibodies against it, creating immunity. Now, when the actual virus does come into that person's body, the immune cells will notice that piece that they saw before and have antibodies ready to go.
It takes two shots to ensure that your cells have made enough of this protein that immune cells can recognize it.
Traditional, non-mRNA vaccines also work by showing the immune system something similar enough to the virus that they'll recognize it if infected with the real virus. But, the difference is those vaccines inject actual pieces of the virus directly, whereas with mRNA, we're injecting instructions for those pieces and then letting our cells actually make the pieces from that. So it's an extra step for our cells to do, but it means way fewer steps for the lab and scientists to do, which is why this vaccine was made so fast and why everyone thought mRNA was going to be the first method to be successful. It's always easier to let cellular machinery do the work for you if you can!
The drawback is that RNA is such an unstable molecule because in the cell, it's meant to be temporary. It gets made quickly and destroyed quickly. DNA has two backbones but RNA only has one. And also, because RNA viruses are everywhere in nature, living things make tons of RNAses which are enzymes designed to destroy RNA as a defense. RNAses are everywhere and very, very hard to remove from the environment, so RNA is always at risk of being destroyed by RNAses. RNAses don't work well at cold temperatures and RNA is less likely to break apart if it's frozen very solid, so ultra cold temperatures preserve it. They can also make modifications and add molecules that help protect RNA, but it's so fragile that ultra cold temperatures are usually used as a precaution. Pfizer says theirs has to be kept at -80 C (ultra cold) while Moderna says theirs can be kept at -20 C (standard freezers). Why there is a difference comes down to the formulation and molecules they add to protect it, but the details they're going to keep secret because they don't want anyone else copying their trade secrets.
If you're referring to making any permanent alterations to our cells, it has to be done to DNA, not mRNA, since the mRNA is a temporary messenger. Once its instructions are "read," it's broken up and reused for parts.
But, you're touching on a very interesting different area of biotechnology that is focused on modifying actual DNA, which would make permanent changes and be able to fix many diseases! The technology for this is called CRISPR-cas9, which you may have heard of. The scientists behind it just won the Nobel Prize this year. There possibilities are infinite, and there is a lot of research going on right now to figure out how to use it effectively.
It's not illegal for regular people to say something "cures" influenza, just for people making money on it. And it's not illegal for them to say what's in their "health supplement"; just to claim that it cures something. So be careful! Some herbs can be dangerous.Can't say. It's illegal to claim that anything natural cures an illness. So that's why it's a secret. All I know is that I got rid of the flu in 2 days.
People like that make me nuts. Does he think all those people in your building who died or got severely ill were just playing political games?One of my neighbors, flat out and said to me: "It is all a political election game! This, (Covid) is not as bad as they re saying! It will disappear on it's own/"....I was flabbergasted!
It took me a minute to reply, but I said, "Well, I believe in Science and Medicine. I was in the medical field. I believe in Science"....
To which he replied; "We all have our own opinions"....
They also don't seem to understand how countries are losing billions worth of money every week because of this business.People like that make me nuts. Does he think all those people in your building who died or got severely ill were just playing political games?
They'll say that the financial loss is due to the restrictions/lockdowns, not the virus. But we know that's not true because even businesses in places without restrictions are experiencing financial loss.They also don't seem to understand how countries are losing billions worth of money every week because of this business.
I don't know about that, some food poisonings will make you really, really sick. Food poisonings all come from bacteria.I assume so. There aren't many things that feel as bad as the flu! Like you're dying.
I had what I presume to be norovirus for a weekend several years back. I think that's the most miserable I've ever been.I don't know about that, some food poisonings will make you really, really sick. Food poisonings all come from bacteria
I agree, CRISPR gets pretty complicated. I'm only really vaguely aware of how it works.I did see the PBS special on CRISPER technology. I will admit it was a bit too much for a before bedtime documentary. as 2 hours long. I think, if I watched it while drinking a cup of coffee, taking notes, and breaking it up into 2, one hour episodes, would really help me understand .....